1Ė2 How Scientists Work

A. Designing an Experiment

1. Stating the Problem

2. Forming a Hypothesis

3. Setting Up a Controlled Experiment

4. Recording and Analyzing Results

5. Drawing a Conclusion

B. Publishing and Repeating Investigations

1. Needhamís Test of Rediís Findings

2. Spallanzaniís Test of Rediís Findings

3. Pasteurís Test of Spontaneous Generation

4. The Impact of Pasteurís Work

C. When Experiments Are Not Possible

D. How a Theory Develops